Make your own free website on Tripod.com

''MIRSEVINI,WELCOME''-THERE IS NO DEITY WORTHY OF WORSHIP EXCEPT ALLAH, AND MUHAMMAD IS HIS MESSENGE

Historia e Gjuhės Shqipe/Albanian Language

Home/Hyrje
About Me/Biografia Ime
Albanian History/Histori
Contact Me/Kontaktoni
Family Photo Album
About Islam,Muslim
Albanian Army-Ushtrija Shqipetare
Historia e Gjuhės Shqipe/Albanian Language
Albanian Muslim

     Albanian or Gjuha shqipe is a language spoken by more than six million inhabitants of the western Balkan peninsula ( (A republic in southeastern Europe on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan Peninsula) Albania,  (A mountainous republic in southeastern Europe) Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece) in south-eastern  (The 2nd smallest continent (actually a vast peninsula of Eurasia); the British use `Europe' to refer to all of the continent except the British Isles) Europe ( (The Indo-European language spoken by the people of Albania) Albanians) and by a small number of people in Calabria and Sicily, southern Italy.
      Gjuha shqipe bėn pjesė nė familjen e gjuhėve indoevropiane, ku futen gjuhėt indoiranike, greqishtja, gjuhėt romane, gjuhėt sllave, gjuhėt gjermane, etj. Ajo formon njė degė tė veēantė nė kėtė familje gjuhėsore dhe nuk ka ndonjė lidhje prejardhjeje me asnjerėn prej gjuhėve tė sotme indoevropiane. Karakteri indoevropian i shqipes, pėrkatėsia e saj nė familjen gjehėsore indoevropiane, u arrit tė pėrcaktohej e tė vėrtetohej qė nga mesi i shekullit XIX, nė sajė tė studimeve tė gjuhėsisė historike krahasuese.
Ishte sidomos merita e njerit prej themeluesve kryesorė tė kėtij drejtimi gjuhėsor, dijetarit tė njohur gjerman Franz Bopp, qė vėrtetoi me metoda shkencore pėrkatėsinė e gjuhės shqipe nė familjen gjuhėsore indoevropiane. F Bopp i kushtoi kėtij problemi njė vepėr tė veēantė me titull “Ueber das Albanesische in scinen verwandtschaftlichen Bezichungen”, botuar nė vitin 1854.
Nė ndarjen e gjuhėve indoevropiane nė dy grupe: nė gjuhė lindore ose satem dhe nė gjujė perėndimore ose kontum, shqipja shkon me gjuhėt lindore (satem), bashkė me gjuhėt indoiranike, gjuhėt balto-sllave dhe armenishten.

Origjina
Problemi i origjnės sė gjuhės shqipe ėshtė njė nga problemet shumė tė debatuara tė shkencės gjuhėsore. Ajo e ka burimin, pa dyshim, prej njerės nga gjuhėt e lashta tė Gadishullit tė Ballkanit, ilirishtes ose trakishtes. Nė literaturėn gjuhėsore qarkullojnė dy teza themelore pėr origjinėn e shqipes: teza e origjinės ilire dhe teza e origjinės traka. Teza ilire ka gjetur mbėshtetje mė tė gjerė historike dhe ghuhėsore. Ajo ėshtė formuar qė nė shekullin XVIII nė rrethet e historianėve.
Pėrpjekjen e parė shkencore pėr tė shpjeguar origjinėn e shqiptarėve dhe tė gjuhės sė tyre, e bėri historiani suedez Hans Erich Thunmann nė veprėn e tij “Undersuchunger liber di Geschichte der Östlichen europäischen Völker” Leipzig 1774. Ai, duke u mbėshtetur nė burime historike latine e bizantine dhe nė tė dhėna gjuhėsore e onomastike, arriti nė pėrfundimin se shqiptarėt janė vazhduesit autoktonė tė popullsisė sė lashtė ilire, e cila nuk u romanizua siē ndodhi me popullsinė trako-dake, paraardhėse tė rumunėve.
Tezea e origjinės ilire te shqipertarėve ėshtė mbėshtetur nga albanolugu i mirėnjohur austriak Johannas Georges von Hahn nė veprėn e tij Albanesische Stidien,publikuar mė 1854
Qė nga ajo kohė deri nė ditėt tona, njė varg dijetarėsh tė shquar historianė, arkeologė e gjuhėtarė, kanė sjellė duke plotėsuar njeri tjetrin, njė sėrė argumentesh historike dhe gjuhėsore, qė mbėshtesin tezėn e origjinės dhe tė shqiptarėve dhe tė gjuhės sė tyre. Disa nga keto argumente themelore, jane:
1. Shqiptarėt banojnė sot nė njė pjesė tė trojeve, ku nė periudhėn antike kanė banuar fise ilire; nga ana tjetėr nė burimet historike nuk njihet ndonjė emigrim i shqiptarėve nga vise tė tjera pėr t’u vendosur nė trojet e sotme.
2. Njė pjesė e elementeve gjuhėsore: emra sendesh, fisesh, emra njerėzish, glosa, etj., qė janė njohur si ilire, gjejnė shpjegim me anė tė gjuhės shqipe.
3. Format e toponimeve tė lashta tė trojeve ilire shqiptare, tė krahasuara me format pėrgjegjėse tė sotme, provojnė se ato jane zhvilluar sipas rregullave tė fonetikės historike tė shqipes, dmth kanė kaluar pa ndėrprerje nėpėr gojėn e njė popullsie shqipfolėse.
4. Marrėdhėniet e shqipes me greqishtjen e vjetėr dhe me latinishten, tregojnė se shqipja ėshtė formuar dhe ėshte zhvilluar nė fqinjėsi me kėto dy gjuhė kėtu nė brigjet e Adriatikut dhe tė Jonit.
5. Tė dhėnat arkeologjike dhe ato tė kulturės materiale e shpirtėrore, dėshmojnė se ka vijimėsi kulturore nga ilirėt antikė te shqiptarėt e sotėm.
Nga tė gjithė kėto argumente, tė paraqitur nė mėnyrė tė pėrmbledhur, rezulton se teza e origjinės ilire e gjuhės shqipe, ėshtė teza mė e mbėshtetur nga ana historike dhe gjuhėsore.

Per me shume rreth h.se gj. Shqipe,kliko ketu,mbi fjale.

English,About Albanian language.

http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/a/al/albanian_language.htm

Albanian language,Gjuha Shqipe....

ALBANİAN LANGUAGE

Albanian is a language spoken by over 6 million people primarily in Albania, but also in several other states in the Balkans as well as by emigrant groups in Italy and Turkey. The language makes up its own branch of the Indo-European languages.

The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in pre-Roman times. Around 230 BC the speakers of these languages were romanized (in some cases completely, as in the case of Dalmatian speakers).

From the 7th century onwards, the surviving Illyrian languages began to lose ground to other languages spoken in the area, largely Slavic languages in the rural areas and the languages descended from vernacular Latin such as Dalmatian and Venetian in the urban areas.


Contents [hide]

Naim FRASHĖRI

enlarge

BIOGRAPHY

Naim Frashėri (1846-1900) is nowadays widely considered to be the national poet of Albania. He spent his childhood in the village of Frashėr where he no doubt began learning Turkish, Persian and Arabic and where, at the Bektashi monastery, he was imbued with the spiritual traditions of the Orient. In Janina (Ioannina), Naim Frashėri attended the Zosimaia secondary school which provided him with the basics of a classical education along Western lines. Here he was to study Ancient and Modern Greek, French and Italian and, in addition, was to be tutored privately in oriental languages. As he grew in knowledge, so did his affinity for his pantheistic Bektashi religion, for the poets of classical Persia and for the Age of Enlightenment. His education in Janina made of him a prime example of a late nineteenth-century Ottoman intellectual equally at home in both cultures, the Western and the Oriental.

Naim Frashėri is the author of a total of twenty-two works: four in Turkish, one in Persian, two in Greek and fifteen in Albanian. In view of his sensitive position as director of the board of censorship of the Turkish Ministry of Education in which capacity he was occasionally able to circumvent the ban on Albanian-language books and publications imposed by the Sublime Porte, Naim Frashėri deemed it wise not to use his full name in many of his publications, and printed only a ‘by N.H.,’ ‘by N.H.F.’ or ‘by N.F.’

The poetry collections for which Naim Frashėri is primarily remembered were also published in Bucharest. Bagėti e bujqėsija, Bucharest 1886 (Bucolics and Georgics), is a 450-line pastoral poem reminiscent of Vergil (70-19 B.C.) and laden with the imagery of his mountain homeland. It proved extremely popular among Frashėri’s compatriots and was smuggled into Albania in caravans. In it, the poet expresses his dissatisfaction with city life, no doubt from actual experience on the bustling banks of the Bosphorus, and idealizes the distant and longed-for Albanian countryside. It is a hymn to nature in the traditions of European romanticism and yet one of earthy substance in which, like Hesiod (8th cent. B.C.) in his ‘Work and Days,’ Vergil in his ‘Georgics’ or the great eighteenth-century Lithuanian poet Kristijonas Donelaitis (1714-1780) in his somewhat less idyllic ‘Seasons,’ Naim Frashėri sings of the herds and flocks, and of the joys and toil of agriculture and rural life. In the collection Luletė e verėsė, Bucharest 1890 (The flowers of spring), he also paid tribute to the beauties of the Albanian countryside in twenty-three poems of rich sonority. Here the pantheistic philosophy of his Bektashi upbringing and the strong influence of the Persian classics are coupled harmoniously with patriotic idealism - literary creativity serving the goal of national identity. The verse collection Parajsa dhe fjala fluturake, Bucharest 1894 (Paradise and winged words), published together with the spiritual essays Mėsime, Bucharest 1894 (Teachings), evinced his affinities for the heroes of the past and for the spiritual traditions of the Orient, in particular for the Persian mystics. Istori’ e Skenderbeut, Bucharest 1898 (History of Scanderbeg), is an historical epic of 11,500 verses which Frashėri must have written in about 1895 in his last creative years and one which the author himself regarded as his masterpiece. It also constituted the poet’s political legacy. Another work of similar proportions, published the same year as the ‘History of Scanderbeg,’ is Qerbelaja, Bucharest 1898 (Kerbela), a Shi’ite religious epic in twenty-five cantos, which deals with the Battle of Kerbela in Iraq in 680 A.D. in which Husein, grandson of the Prophet Mohammed, was killed. In contrast to the ‘History of Scanderbeg,’ Qerbelaja is a narrative epic devoid of a hero or principal character. Many elements of Naim Frashėri’s religiosity are also present in Naim Frashėri’s Fletore e Bektashinjet, Bucharest 1896 (Bektashi notebook), which is of major significance for our knowledge of the pantheistic but secretive Bektashi sect of dervishes. Frashėri hoped that liberal Bektashi beliefs to which he had been attached since his childhood in Frashėr would one day take hold as the new religion of all Albania. Since they had their roots both in the Muslim Koran and in the Christian Bible, they could promote unity among his religiously divided people. The Notebook contains an introductory profession of Bektashi faith and ten spiritual poems which provide a rare view into the beliefs of the sect which in the nineteenth century played an important role in the survival of Albanian culture, in particular by the illegal distribution of Albanian books.

The significance of Naim Frashėri as a Rilindja poet and indeed as a ‘national poet’ rests not so much upon his talents of literary expression nor on the artistic quality of his verse, but rather upon the sociopolitical, philosophical and religious messages it transmitted, which were aimed above all at national awareness and, in the Bektashi tradition, at overcoming religious barriers within the country. His influence upon Albanian writers at the beginning of the twentieth century was enormous. Many of his poems were set to music during his lifetime and were sung as folk songs. If one compares the state of Albanian literature before and after the arrival of Naim Frashėri, one becomes aware of the major role he played in transforming Albanian into a literary language of substantial refinement.

Poetry;

Oh mountains of Albania

Oh mountains of Albania and you, oh trees so lofty,
Broad plains with all your flowers, day and night I contemplate you,
You highlands so exquisite, and you streams and rivers sparkling,
Oh peaks and promontories, and you slopes, cliffs, verdant forests,
Of the herds and flocks I'll sing out which you hold and which you nourish.
Oh you blessed, sacred places, you inspire and delight me!
         You, Albania, give me honour, and you name me as Albanian,
And my heart you have replenished both with ardour and desire.
         Albania! Oh my mother! Though in exile I am longing,
My heart has ne'er forgotten all the love you've given to me.
         When a lambkin from its flock strays and does hear its mother's bleating,
Once or twice it will give answer and will flee in her direction,
Were others, twenty-thirty fold, to block its path and scare it,
Despite its fright it would return, pass through them like an arrow,
Thus my wretched heart in exile, here in foreign land awaiting,
Hastens back unto that country, swift advancing and in longing.
         Where cold spring water bubbles and cool breezes blow in summer,
Where the foliage grows so fairly, where the flowers have such fragrance,
Where the shepherd plays his reed pipe to the grazing of the cattle,
Where the goats, their bells resounding, rest, yes 'tis the land I long for.

...

[excerpt from O Malet' e Shqipėrisė, from the volume Bagėti e bujqėsija, Bucharest 1886. Translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

Other poetry....

Hasan Zyko KAMBERI

enlarge

BIOGRAPHY

Hasan Zyko Kamberi was born in the second half of the eighteenth century in Starja, a southern Albanian village near Kolonja at the foot of Mount Grammos. Of his life we know only that he took part in the Turkish-Austrian Battle of Smederevo on the Danube east of Belgrade in 1789 [1203 A.H.] in an army under the command of Ali Pasha Tepelena (1741-1822). He died a dervish, no doubt of the Bektashi sect, in his native village at the beginning of the nineteenth century. His tomb in Starja was turned into a shrine known locally as the turbeh of Baba Hasani.

Kamberi is one of the most commanding representatives of the Muslim tradition in Albanian literature, though his main work, a 200-page mexhmua (verse collection), has disappeared. A manuscript of this collection is said to have been sent to Monastir (Bitola) in 1908-1910 to be published, but all traces of it have since been lost. Indeed little of his verse has survived and even less has been published. Of the works we do possess are: a short mevlud, a religious poem on the birth of the prophet Mohammed; about ten ilāhī; and over fifty secular poems.

Kamberi’s secular verse covers a wide range of themes. In his octosyllabic Sefer-i hümāyūn (The king’s campaign) in thirty-three quatrains, he describes his participation in the above-mentioned Battle of Smederevo and gives a realistic account of the suffering it caused. In Bahti im (My fortune) and Vasijetnameja (The testament), Kamberi casts an ironic and sometimes bitter glance at the vagaries of fate and in particular at the misfortunes of his own life. Gjerdeku (The bridal chamber) portrays marriage customs in the countryside. It is not a pastoral idyll we encounter here, but a realistic account of the anguish and hardship of young women married off according to custom without being able to choose husbands for themselves, and the suffering of young men forced to go abroad to make a living. In Kamberi’s love lyrics, the author laments social conventions that inhibit passion and spontaneity. The most famous of his poems is Paraja (Money), a caustic condemnation of feudal corruption and at the same time perhaps the best piece of satirical verse in pre-twentieth century Albanian literature.

 

His of poetry

Money

The sultan who rules the world,
The founder of the mint,
The place where silver's coined,
He knows what money's worth.

The vizier, who's his aide,
Who acts as if he's just,
He lets no gossip spread,
He knows what money's worth.

Sheyhulislami issues fatwas,
He knows what's canon law,
Yet a bribe he'll not refuse,
He knows what money's worth.

The mufti and the teacher,
Both scholars and imams,
Are in the devil's pact,
They know what money's worth.

The judge, too, in his courtroom,
Reclining on his rug,
The dervish in his tekke,
They know what money's worth.

The pashas and the beys
And all the milling crowds
For riches lose their heads,
They know what money's worth.

Show money to a judge,
He'll interpret laws anew,
For a cent he'd sell his father,
He knows what money's worth.

For money they'll get drunk
And put the world to shame,
E'en the farmer sowing beans,
He knows what money's worth.

There is no creature living
Exempt from this desire,
All guildsmen and all merchants,
They know what money's worth.

The infant in his cradle,
His hand out, crying "gimme!"
Will cram cash in his pocket,
He knows what money's worth.

The jackdaw perched in silence,
Throw a penny on the ground,
'twill seize it, take it nestward,
It knows what money's worth.

Money in this world
Will consume both young and old,
In hellfire it will burn them,
They know what money's worth...

[Excerpt from Paraja, late 18th century. Translated from the Albanian by Robert Elsie]

 

For more about Albanian literature ,please clike here;

http://www.albanianliterature.com/home.html

''Se Shqiperia me ep nder,me ep emer Shqipetar''